There are two ovaries on each side of the uterus in the ovarian fossa. They are oval in shape and with a mean volume of approx 4.9ml. The ovary often lies on the internal iliac artery and vein but does not maintain a consistent relationship with these vessels.
On baseline imaging ovaries are evaluated for normal expected findings and to screen any abnormality.
In the first half of the menstrual cycle (follicular phase) a normal ovary will demonstrate multiple Antral follicles which measures between 2-9 mm in maximum diameter, they are best evaluated on D2 or D3 of menstrual cycle. Normal AFC is 5-10 in each ovary, if AFC is < 4 combined in both ovaries it is decreased ovarian reserve. If AFC ≥ 12 in any/ either ovaries it indicates polycystic ovaries. Normal stromal blood flow velocity is 6-12cm/sec.
In a natural cycle a dominant follicle of size 17-24mm develops in one of the ovaries matures and releases the egg (ovum) during ovulation.
On color Doppler, flow velocity tends to increase at . …. and immediately after ovulation.
After ovulation a corpus luteum is frequently seen during the second half of the menstrual cycle secretory phase).
On power Doppler it appears like a ring of fire due to increased blood flow.
Corpus luteum appears as a round anechoic cystic mass with a homogenous, thick, moderately echogenic wall.