Several percutaneous and open surgical procedures have been described to retrieve sperm:
In men with obstructive azoospermia, epididymal sperm can usually be retrieved by percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration (PESA). If PESA fails then testicular sperm are obtained by needle aspiration biopsy (NAB).
In men with non-obstructive azoospermia, there will be no sperm in the epididymis and testicular sperm retrieval is required. Testicular sperm extraction (TESE) from open microsurgical biopsies is performed using the single seminiferous tubule (SST) or the micro-dissection TESE techniques.
How Long is Spermretrieval Surgery?
The fluid obtained after the surgical retrieval is inspected immediately by embryologists under a microscope for surgical sperm content and motility. The procedure takes about 20-30 minutes.